When Presbyterians think of important moments in the history of the church, the events and people who shaped both the content of our belief and the practices by which we live, we turn first, of course, to the New Testament. From there we tend to jump to the Protestant Reformation and the contributions of Martin Luther and John Calvin. Unfortunately, in making that jump we lose sight of some of the most important moments of our heritage, because much of what we take for granted in the church today emerged during those early centuries in response to the challenges the church was facing. In this study participants will examine some of those challenges. The ways in which the church responded can provide a frame of reference for considering our own faith and practice and the challenges we face as Christians today.